ANCIENT HELLENIC HISTORY
The Second Period of Colonial Expansion (about 750 – 550 B.C.
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Motives to Colonization

The expansion of the Greeks over the islands and the east coast of the Aegean Sea sometimes described as the first period of colonization, was somewhat like a migration. It followed no definite plan; and the motives, so far as we can discover them, were the pressure of new invaders in Greece, and land-hunger. This period coincided with the Mycenaean Age. Afterward, expansion came nearly to a standstill, to begin again about the middle of the 8th century B.C. From that point it continued for about two hundred years.

In the second period of expansion, the first motive to be considered was over-population. This cause was especially active in Achaea and Locris. Here people depended wholly on agriculture and grazing. As the poor soil could not support many in these occupations, and as the population was growing dense, the surplus flowed off in colonies. The same motive was present in the industrial centers; and a new one was added – the desire to found stations for trade in foreign countries. This cause was active in Chalcis, Corinth, Megara, and Miletus – all centers of trade and manufacturing.

A third motive was political unrest. In the more progressive parts of Greece the monarchies had given way to aristocracies and oligarchies. The states were often afflicted by internal strife and the governments were usually harsh and burdensome. Many who felt oppressed and many who were expelled by hostile factions sought new homes in distant lands. Not the least powerful motive was the love of adventure and the longing to see the world, often combined with the fortune-hunting spirit.

 

Organization of a Colony

When a city planned to send out a colony, it was customary first to ask the advice and consent of Apollo at Delphi. Having obtained his approval, it appointed some noble as “founder” who was to lead the enterprise, to distribute the lands among the settlers, and to arrange the government. Generally the mother city permitted any who wished from neighboring communities to join the expedition. The founder assigned each man his place in the new state, and established a government and religion like those of the mother city. In this connection it is well to notice that every Greek city had its town hall and a sacred hearth on which it always kept a fire burning. This hearth was the religious center of the community, an altar on which the divine founder and ancestor received his sacrifices. It was customary for colonists to carry with them the sacred fire from the hearth of the mother city with which to kindle the public hearth of the new settlement, that the religious life of the old community might continue uninterrupted in the new, and that those who went forth to found new homes in a strange country might not for a moment be deprived of divine protection.

 

Relation of a Colony to the Mother City

A mother city preferred, when possible, to keep political control of her colonies. But conditions generally prevented this. Colonists, like other Greeks, loved complete independence for their cities, and would not rest satisfied with any other condition. Usually, too, the colonies were distant, communication with the mother city was slow, and all these circumstances combined to render control impossible. Hence, as a rule, the colony was politically independent. But it remained in close religious and social union with the mother-land. The two states usually traded with each other. They often joined in planting other colonies, and in time of danger they gave mutual assistance. This moral bond was rarely broken.

 

Colonies in Italy and Sicily

Italy is farther than Asia Minor from the Greek peninsula, and the Ionian Sea is not, like the Aegean, filled with islands; yet the Greeks from the Epeirot coast could look in clear weather across the narrowest part of the sea to the shore of Italy. There they found more fertile soil than they had known in their own homes. This review of the settlements here will be geographical rather than chronological.

Lower Italy may be compared in form to a boot. In the heel next to the instep is an excellent harbor, on which grew up the great city of Tarentum. Because of the favorable situation it became renowned for commerce, wealth, and refinement. It was especially influential, too, in giving Greek civilization to the natives of the peninsula. Following the coastline around the instep, we come to Sybaris, noted for her wealth and luxury. The word Sybarite is still used to designate an excessively luxurious person. Farther south was Croton, the home of famous athletes and physicians. Both cities were Achaean. After they had shown the utmost good feeling toward one another for many years, they engaged in a deadly strife in which Sybaris was blotted out of existence (510 B.C.). Locri, farther to the southwest, received its name from Locris, the mother country. This city was renowned for her excellent government. She was the first of all Indo-Europeans to have a written collection of laws. Passing around the toe of the peninsula, we some to Rhegium, then far north, to Cumae near the Bay of Naples. The importance of Cumae lies in the fact, that from her the Romans derived the alphabet and other rudiments of culture. Afterward Naples grew up on the bay of the same name. Cumae, Naples, Rhegium, and some other colonies on the west coast were Chalcidic – founded by Chalcis, Euboea.

In Sicily the same city founded Mesene on the strait opposite Rhegium, and several other settlements on the east and north coasts. The most important city in Sicily was Syracuse on the eastern coast. In time it became the largest city in Greece. Its “Great Harbor” could shelter the navies of the world. Next in population and wealth was Acragas (Latin – Agrigentum). The founders built their city on a hill two miles from the sea, and adorned it with temples, colonnades, and beautiful dwellings, while all around it they planted vineyards and olive orchards. On account of its brilliancy and beauty, Pindar the poet calls it “the eye of Sicily.” Tarentum, Syracuse, and Acragas were Dorian colonies.

 

Results of Colonization in the West

Because of its wonderful fertility, Sicily soon excelled the mother country in wealth. Its cities were mostly on the coast, and for this reason Pindar calls them “a gorgeous crown of citadels,” which nearly surrounded the island. The Greeks were prevented from completing the circuit of colonies by the Phoenicians, who occupied the western end of Sicily.

The colonization of the West began as early as 750 B.C. and continued for about two hundred years. The territory occupied by the Greeks in Italy is called by the Latin name Magna Graecia (“Great Hellas”); while the term “Western Hellas” includes their settlements in both Italy and Sicily. Western Hellas was related to the mother country somewhat like America is now to Europe. It remained politically distinct, but always kept in the closest commercial and intellectual contact. In two respects the western Greeks are important in the history of civilization: (1) they made great contributions to science and the arts; (2) they were the source from which the natives of the West, including the Romans, drew the larger part of their culture.

 

Colonies in Chalcidice

While the Greeks were planting colonies in Italy and Sicily, they were busy extending their settlements within the Aegean area. On the northwest coast of the Aegean, they found a broad peninsula with three arms reaching far into the sea. It is so rugged and has so long a coast-line that the Greeks who went there to live found it very homelike. Men swarmed to that region to work the copper, silver, and gold mines and to cut timber for shipbuilding; and as most of them came from Chalcis, they named their new home Chalcidice. Potidaea, a Corinthian colony, however, became the chief commercial city of the region. In the interior near Chalcidice lived the Macedonians, who spoke a Greek dialect, and were in fact Greeks. But on account of their situation they had made little progress in civilization. It was chiefly from the colonies near them that they slowly adopted the improvements in life and the advanced ideas of the more cultured Hellenes. The colonists in this region, accordingly, did for them what the Greeks in the West did for the Romans.

 

Colonists on the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Black Sea

While some of the Greeks were working the mines of Chalcidice, others were sailing into the Hellespont to fish and to found settlements along its shore. Others, passing through the Hellespont, explored the coasts of the Propontis. Propontis is the water “in front of” the Pontus, that is, of the Black Sea. Of all the settlements in this region the most important was Byzantium founded by the little city of Megara. This colony was on the Propontis, at the entrance to the strait of Bosporus. Situated on a magnificent harbor, it engaged extensively in trade. Nearly a thousand years after its founding, it became, under the name of Constantinople, the capital of the Roman Empire.

The Greeks pushed on through the Bosporus to explore and settle the coasts of the Black Sea. This water they called simply Pontus – “the Sea” – or more commonly Euxine – “the Hospitable.” In time a chain of colonies stretched almost continuously around the sea. Miletus alone is said to have founded more than eighty colonies in this region. The great attraction lay in the rich natural resources. Colchis yielded gold; the southern coast silver, copper, iron and timber; the northern coast, cattle, hides and grain; the sea itself, fish. From the natives slaves were obtained by purchasing and kidnapping. The country about this sea accordingly supplied the populous districts of Greece with laborers, food, the precious metals and raw materials for manufacturing. It had little part in the intellectual life of Hellas, and its civilizing influence did not reach far from the shores.

 

The More Distant Colonies

The colonies thus far mentioned extended from Greece in different directions almost as continuously as the intervening waters would allow. Other settlements were made on the remotest shores of the Mediterranean. In Egyptian history the later Pharaohs permitted the Greeks to settle at one of the mouths of the Nile. This colony was Naucratis. In it all the great commercial cities of Greece had their warehouses, chartered by the Egyptian government. The kings of the land sent youths to Naucratis to learn the Hellenic tongue, and began to form alliances with the Greek states. Many Greeks who were eager for knowledge, and had the leisure and the means of traveling, visited Egypt as well as Babylonia to see the strange old country and learn wisdom from its priests. They brought home a few valuable facts about surveying, the movement of the stars, and the recording of events, and with the help of this little treasure of truths their own inventive minds worked out the first real science.

In the opposite direction, the Phocaeans of Ionia rowed their fifty-oared galleys to the southern coast of Gaul, where they founded Massalia (the present Marseilles) on an excellent harbor. From this colony as a center they established trading stations in the interior as well as along the coast; by means of these settlements they extended their traffic over the whole of Gaul and as far as Britain and the Baltic Sea. In Spain the Greeks founded fewer settlements, owing to its distance as well as to the opposition of the Phoenicians, who were already taking possession of this peninsula.

 

The Extent of Hellas

During this period of colonization the Greeks spread their settlements over a large part of the known ancient world, as the western Europeans have made their home in every part of the modern world. The Greeks were then all that western Europeans are now – representatives and teachers of the highest existing civilization, carrying their culture everywhere, and everywhere gaining the advantage over others by means of their own superior vitality and intelligence. Hellas included all their settlements on the shores of the Mediterranean and its tributaries, from Egypt to the “Pillars of Heracles,” – Strait of Gibraltar – and from south Russia to the African desert. They were not united under a single government, but they were one in blood, one in speech and manners, and one in religion.

In the process of colonization many different Greek cities occupied area in the western world for their trade and occupation. Thus Miletus sent colony after colony to the north shore of the Black Sea, to control the corn trade there. Sixty Greek towns fringed that sea and its straits. The one city, Chalcis in Euboea, planted thirty-two colonies on the Thracian coast to secure the gold and silver mines of that region. On the west, Sicily became almost wholly Greek, and southern Italy took the proud name of Magna Graecia (Greater Greece). Indeed, settlements were sown from end to end of the Mediterranean. Among the more important of the colonies were Syracuse in Sicily, Tarentum in Italy, Corcyra in the Adriatic, Massilia (Marseilles) in Gaul, Olynthus in Thrace, Cyrene in Africa, and Byzantium on the Bosporus.

(See map below for complete occupation)

 

THE RISE OF SPARTA AND THE PELOPONNESIAN LEAGUE
Sparta and Laconia

Laconia, a country in Peloponnese, is bounded on the north by the Arcadian highland and on the east and west by lofty parallel ranges. The whole country is the basin of the Eurotas River. It was one of the most fertile parts of Greece, and in the mountain range on the west there were rich iron mines. Naturally the principal occupations were farming and the manufacture of iron wares.

Sparta, the city of Laconia, was situated on the right bank of the Eurotas. In contrast with the usual Greek city, placed on a hilltop and strongly fortified, it was a mere group of villages without walls and on only a slight elevation. The reason for this peculiarity will be made clear below.

Originally there had been several city-states in Laconia; but Sparta by conquest had reduced the others to submission and had become the sole independent city. In the case of Sparta alone, it is necessary to distinguish between the city and the state. Sparta was simply the city, whereas the name of the state was Lacedaemon. The members of the state – Lacedaemonians – comprised both the Spartans and the dependent population.

 

The Social Classes: the Helots

There were but few slaves in Laconia. Most of the laborers were helots, or state serfs. Some were reduced to this condition by the Spartan conquest; others doubtless were once free peasants, whom oppression forced into serfdom. The helots tilled the fields of the Spartans, paying them fixed amounts of grain, wine, oil, and fruit. They served in war as light-armed troops, and some were given their freedom for bravery and faithfulness. They lived with their families on the farms they worked, or grouped together in villages. Their lords had no right to free them or to sell them beyond the borders of the country; and under favorable conditions they could even acquire property of their own. Still their condition was hard, for the more intelligent they were, the more the Spartans dreaded and oppressed them. The rulers organized a secret police force of youths, which was to watch over the helots, and put out of the way anyone who might be regarded as dangerous to the community.

 

The Perioeci

The perioeci were between the helots and Spartans in rank. They inhabited the towns of Laconia and Messinia and at first enjoyed independence in all local matters; but as time went on Sparta encroached on their liberties by sending out officers to rule over them. They paid war taxes and served as heavy-armed troops in the Lacedaemonian army. Since the land left them by the conquerors was the poorest in the country, many of them made their living by skilled industry and trade. While the Spartans themselves could use only iron money, the perioeci were not thus hampered in their business. On the whole, they could not have been badly treated, for they remained loyal to Sparta for centuries. Spartans, perioeci, and helots were alike Dorians, so far as we know; no difference of race has been discovered, and we are not certain why the Spartans treated some of the conquered as serfs and left others free; but perhaps the perioeci were the inhabitants of communities which were strong enough to make good terms with their conquerors.

 

The Spartans; the Training of Their Boys

The Spartans were the inhabitants of the city of Sparta. They were too proud and too exclusive to share their citizenship with the conquered in Laconia and Messinia; and as they were themselves never more than eight or nine thousand of military age, while their subjects were many times as numerous, they could maintain their rule only by making of themselves a standing army and by keeping up a constant military training. Every Spartan must have a sound body to begin with. The father brought his boy soon after birth to the elders of his tribe; and if they found him puny and ill-shaped, they ordered him to be exposed to death in a chasm of the mountains nearby; but if they judged the boy strong and healthy, they allowed him to live. To his seventh year the Spartan boy was in the care of his mother; then the state took charge of his education and placed him in a company of lads under a trainer. From the age of twelve he had to gather reeds for his own bed from the banks of the Eurotas and must learn to live without underclothing and to go barefoot in winter and summer. Every year the boys had to give a test of their endurance by submitting to a whipping before the altar of the goddess Artemis, and he was the hero who could endure the flogging the longest. Boys, youths, and young men were organized in troops and companies, and exercised in marching, sham-fighting and gymnastics. They were taught to hunt and to be nimble and cunning, but their only mental culture was in music and poetry. The whole object of their education was to make brave, strong and well-disciplined soldiers. The girls passed through a training like that of the youths, though less severe. They, too, practiced running, leaping and throwing the spear and discus. The state encouraged them to such exercise, as it considered the gymnastic education of women necessary to the physical perfection of the race.

 

Young Men

At the age of twenty the Spartan youth became a young man, and as he was now liable to military service in the field, he joined a “mess,” or brotherhood of about fifteen comrades each, who are together in war and in peace. The members of the mess to which he applied voted on his admission with bread crumbs, “throwing them into a basin carried by the waiter around the table; those who liked the young man dropped their ball into the basin without changing its figure, and if anyone disliked him, he pressed the crumb flat between his fingers and thus gave his negative vote. And if there was but one of these flattened pieces in the basin, the candidate was rejected, so desirous were they that all members of the company should be agreeable to each other.” Each member had to furnish his monthly share of barley meal, wine, cheese, figs and money for meat and dainties; also a part of whatever game he got by hunting. The “black broth” was the national Spartan dish, relished by the elderly men, though the young men preferred meat. Thus their fare was simple but efficient; and no one could say that they were spoiled for war by being overfed. Membership of these associations continued through life.

 

Mature Men and Women

At thirty the Spartan became a mature man and could now attend the assembly, but he did not cease from military service and training till his sixtieth year. Though compelled by law to marry, he could have no home, and could not even claim his family as his own. All the older Spartans regarded the younger as their children and the young were taught to obey and respect any of the citizens as much as their own fathers. But while the Spartan ate in the barracks with his fellow soldiers and passed his time in military exercises, his wife lived in comfort and luxury. Aristotle says that Lycurgus, after subjecting the men to discipline, tried to make the women orderly, but failed, and permitted them therefore to live as they pleased. As they could inherit and acquire property in Laconia, and as men were not permitted to engage in business, it resulted in time that two-fifths of the land in the state came into the hands of the women.

 

The Army

In the Mycenaean and Homeric ages the nobles alone could afford heavy armor and good weapons. The masses, grouped in tribes and phatries, were miserably equipped and altogether without training. On the battlefield one noble was worth a hundred commoners. This is the chief reason why the nobles despised the common men and gave them few political rights.

Even in the Homeric age, however, we find some attempt to keep the masses of fighters in an even line. But the great innovators in this direction were the Spartans. Two causes of the improvement here mentioned may be traced to the country itself: (1) in the broad fertile plain were more land owners than elsewhere who were wealthy enough to equip themselves with the full armor; (2) the mines of Laconia furnished abundant iron for swords and spear points, the defensive armor being mostly bronze. We must not lose sight of the fact, however, that the principal cause was the intelligence which made use of these resources. The army organized on this new plan was a phalanx – a line of warriors equipped with strong defensive armor and long spears, which moved as a unit to the sound of music. The line was several ranks deep. This system made Lacedaemon the strongest military power in the world. It rendered the fortification of Sparta unnecessary, and had besides an important effect on the form of government.

 

The Government

The towns of the perioeci managed their local affairs with more or less interference from Sparta. In this respect they were like our municipalities, though less independent. The government of the city of Sparta, on the other hand, conducted by the Spartans exclusively, supervised these town governments and attended to all the affairs of the state as a whole. Originally the government was like that described by Homer, excepting that there were two kings in place of one.

Continual quarrelling between the two kings weakened the office. Thereupon the government fell into the hands, not of the council, as in most Greek states, but of the assembly of freemen. The reason is to be found in the adoption of the phalanx. Everywhere in Hellas the men who made up the effective military force were controlling political power. The government of Lacedaemon became accordingly a military aristocracy, as the Spartan freemen were all nobles, ruling over a subject population. The assembly did not exercise the powers of government directly, however, but entrusted them to a board of five ephors, or overseers who were elected annually. In time the ephors placed themselves at the head of the state, whereas the kings came to be hardly more than priests and generals. Among the Spartans were some especially noble families, who were represented in the council by twenty-eight elders and the two kings. The council lost influence along with the kings.

 

Outline of the Aristocratic Constitution
 

I. Magistrates
1. Five ephors, elected annually, the chief executives.
2. Two kings, hereditary and life-long, from the two royal families; priests and generals; judges in a few minor cases.

II. Council
1. Composed of twenty-eight elders sixty years of age or above, and the two kings, representing the noble families
2. Functions:
a. Deliberation on measures to be presented to the assembly
b. Trial of criminal cases.

III. Assembly
1. Composed of Spartans in good standing.
2. Functions:
a. Election of magistrates and councilors.
b. Voting on measures presented by the council.

 

The Myth of Lycurgus

The Spartans of later time tried in the usual Greek way to account for the origin of their institutions by ascribing them all to one man, Lycurgus. In their belief he was regent in place of a young king, his nephew. Finding the state full of violence, he went to Crete, and brought home from there a whole body of customs and laws for his country. By compelling the citizens to obey the new laws, he made them the most orderly people in the world. This story was current at Sparta. Other Greeks, wishing to give Apollo the credit, used to say that Lycurgus went to Delphi and got his new laws through the oracle. After his death, the story continues, the Lacedaemonians built him a temple, where they worshipped him with the utmost reverence.

It is true that the Spartans had a god named Lycurgus; but, as the early Greeks did not deify their great men, this god could not have been once a human legislator. The similarity between the Spartan and Cretan laws points to a borrowing in one direction or the other. But the great objection to the story is that earlier writers who touch on Lacedaemonian affairs utterly ignore Lycurgus and ascribe the constitution to this or that other person. In fact, the system of the Spartans was due largely to their surroundings. There may indeed have lived a man of the same name as the god Lycurgus, and he may have perfected and enforced the system; but we have no positive knowledge of his achievements or even of his existence.

 

The First Messenian War (about 725 B.C.)

After the Spartans had subdued all Laconia, a desire “to plough and plant fertile Messenia” led them to the conquest of that country. In fact they needed more land and helots to support the increasing number of their warrior citizens. After twenty years of hard fighting, they drove the Messenians from the stronghold of Mount Ithome, and annexed the eastern part of that country. Many Messenians fled across the borders. Those who remained became helots, and had to till for the Spartans the fields which had once been their own. “Like asses worn with heavy burdens they brought to their lords, under hard necessity, the half of all the earth produced.”

 

The Second Messenian War (about 650 B.C.)

Two or three generations later the Messenians rose in rebellion. With the help of allies from Argos, Arcadia, and elsewhere, they utterly routed the Lacedaemonian army. In despair the Spartans talked of giving up the struggle, but were inspired to a new effort by Tyrtaeus. He was a martial poet, a general, and a statesman. There is a quotation from one of his “charging songs,” which the warriors sang as they went to battle:

“To the front, O sons of Sparta,
Rich in men, of freeborn fathers;
With your left hand press your shield forth,
Hurl your lance with daring spirit,
Sparing not your life in battle,
For “tis not the rule at Sparta.”

Receiving the command, he won a decisive victory. The survivors fled to the Arcadian mountains, whence for many years they raided the farms of Laconia. The Spartans who suffered loss clamored for a redistribution of property; but Tyrtaeus, in a poem entitled “Good Order,” quieted the discontent. The war ended in the complete subjugation of Messenia. Again many escaped into foreign lands. Some found new homes in Sicily at Messene, a Chalcidic colony. From the newcomers the city and neighboring strait derived their name. The masses of the conquered became helots. For about three centuries Messenia remained a part of Lacedaemon.

 

League with the Arcadians

Next the Lacedaemonian rulers asked of Apollo at Delphi permission to conquer all Arcadia” but the prophetess answered:

“The land of Arcadia thou askest” thou askest too much; I refuse it:
Many there are in Arcadian land, stout men eating acorns;
They will prevent thee from this: but I am not grudging toward thee;
Tegea beaten with sounding feet I will give thee to dance in,
And a fair plain will I give thee to measure with line and divide it.”

Tegea, however, made the oracle true by defeating the Lacedaemonians and compelling the prisoners to divide her plain among themselves with a measuring line, and till it in fetters. But somewhat later the Tegeans entered into a league with Sparta, and agreed to follow her lead in war. Their example was imitated by other Arcadians, who proved a source of great military strength to Sparta, for they were strong, brave men, as mountaineers usually are, and made excellent warriors, second only to the Spartans themselves.

 

Tyranny at Corinth (655 – 582 B.C.)

Corinth was the most important state of Peloponnese which entered into permanent alliance with Lacedaemon, and for that reason its previous history is given here. The king had been succeeded by a small body of aristocrats, who in time grew illiberal and insolent. Thereupon Cypselus, a man of the common people, put them down and made himself a tyrant. Though usurpers generally found it necessary to surround themselves with a band of soldiers enlisted from other states, Cypselus was so beloved by a majority of his subjects that he ruled for thirty years without a guard. His son Periander, who succeeded him, was compelled to use harsh measures against the nobles who opposed him, and laid heavy taxes on the wealthy. But he used the revenues in beautifying his city and in increasing its power and influence throughout Greece. These tyrants founded many colonies. Corcyra, an island off the west coast of Greece, had been settled from Corinth long before, but had gained its independence. The tyrants reduced the island temporarily to obedience, and planted in the neighborhood a group of colonies, which remained faithful to the mother city. The same rulers were liberal patrons of religion, especially the religion of the peasants; and their gifts to the gods at Olympia were reckoned among the wonders of the world. On the downfall of the family, Corinth became a well-regulated oligarchy. (Note: Corcyra, the island off the west coast of Greece, is today called Corfu [Kerkira] and Corcyra Nigra is the island in the Adriatic called Korcula.)

 

The Peloponnesian League

It was under this form of government that Corinth became an ally of Lacedaemon (about 580 B.C.). Elis had already joined the alliance, and Sicyon (Sishion) followed some years later. All these states were brought into the league by their wealthy men on the assurance that they should have control of their governments. And in general Sparta desired that her allies should be governed by oligarchies; because she knew that oligarchs would be more loyal to her than either tyrants or democrats.

The Peloponnesian League, which Sparta was thus forming, had no common federal constitution, such as that of the United States, but each community had its own treaty with Lacedaemon. Deputies from the allied states met in congress at Sparta or Corinth to settle questions of war and peace; and the states furnished troops to serve in war under the Lacedaemonian kings. They did not pay tribute to Sparta, but divided among themselves the expenses of the league, which were always light. Thus the states enjoyed independence, and at the same time the advantages of union.

 

Sparta and Argos

By the middle of the 6th century B.C. the league, under the leadership of Sparta, had come to include all Peloponnese excepting Achaea and Argolis. About 550 B.C. the crisis came in a struggle between Sparta and Argos for the possession of Cynuria, a strip of land held by the latter state along the coast east of Mount Parnon. Three hundred champions for each state were to decide the contest, but after a day’s fighting, only two Argives and one Spartan remained alive. Then a dispute as to which side had won the victory ended in a bloody battle, in which the Lacedaemonians were masters. This success gave them Cynuria and the island of Cythera, and made them the foremost power among the states of Greece.

>Excerpts and maps from “A HISTORY OF THE ANCIENT WORLD” by George Willis Botsford, Ph.D., copyright 1911, pgs 104-121


Compiled by Marko Marelich, Retired Mechanical Engineer
San Francisco, California USA
May, 2008