Ex-libris i Jakov Banicevic

.. tekst prenjet iz: "1. MEDJUNARODNA IZLOZBA "EX LIBRIS - 1997.",

Ex-libris, lat.iz knjiga,  ex -foliis” (iz listova),  ex bibliotheca”,

Ex-libris u knjigama se pojavljuju u Europi vec od sredine XV.st.   Isprva pojavljuje se kao tehnika drvorez te ksilografija.  Kasnije, krajem XV.st. pojavljuje se i nova tehnika kalkografija (bakropis). Prvi ex-librisi pojavljuju se u Njemackoj 1460. godine. Narocito se prosiruju Guttenbergovim tiskarskim pronalaskom, pa knjige, a i ex-librisi postaju jeftiniji i dostupniji. Prvi su ex-librisi bili zapravo samo autografi vlasnika i pecati. Samo su rijetki pojedinci mogli naruciti skupi ex-libris, sa slikom - grafikom cesto grbom, alegorijom ili simbolom svoga zanata. U Europi se ex-libris iz Njemacke siri u Englesku, 1574. godine te Italiju, Francusku, Austrijsko carstvo.

Ex-librise su u svoje vrijeme radili istaknuti likovni umjetnici kao A.Dürer, H.Holbein ml., L.Cranach ml., F.Boucher, P.Gavarini,  E.Manet i mnogi drugi graficari. Krajem XIX.st. se osnivaju drustva ex-librisa u Londonu 1891., u Berlinu 1891., te Parizu 1893. godine. Od tada se pokrece i kolekcionarska djelatnost, casopisi i internacionalne izlozbe.  

Ex-libris u Hrvatskoj
U Hrvatskoj se prvi, do sada poznati ex-libris javlja u Dalmaciji. To je ex-libris iz XV. st. Djure Ğurkovica. Jedan je od prvih ex librisa visoke kvalitete je onaj Jakova Banicevica, Korculanina  (1466. - 1532.). Taj je ex-libris nacinio za ovoga diplomata u sluzbi cara Maksimiliana 1520 godine sam Albrecht Dürer. Osim toga, iz XVII. st. su znacajni ex- librisi obitelji Zrinski, oca Nikole i sina Adama, jedan iz 1646., a drugi 1652. godine.  Njih je izradio Elias Wideman iz Augsburga. U XVIII. st. javljaju se heraldicki ili s alegorijskim slikama ex-librisi srednjeg hrvatskog plemstva, patricijata i gradjanstva (Skrlec, Jelacic, Kusevic Labas). Osim ovih imamo i ex-librise svecenstva (zupnika Adama Baricevica iz 1780. godine. Ex - librise od XVI. st. na dalje u Hrvatskoj izradjuju  Martin Kolunic - Rotta, Medulic - Schiavone, te Pavao Ritter - Vitezovic.  Poslije 1918. godine ....

 

Ex-libris, lat. out of the books, i.e. "ex-foliis" (from the leaves), "ex- bibliotheca" (from the library), inscribed in the book before the name of the owner, existed in Europe in XV cent. already.

At the beginning there was used the art of engraving on wood or xylography. Later on, by the end of XV cent. there appeared a new art of engraving on copper or chalcography. The first ex-librises were made in Germany in 1460. After German printer, Johann Gutenberg invented printing from movable type, ex-librises became cheaper and affordable to the broad masses. The first ex-librises were, in fact, the autographs of the book owner or the stamps. Only rare individuals could afford an expensive ex-libris, with depictions - graphics, or often arms, allegories or symbols of their craft.

In Europe ex-libris spread from Germany to England in 1574, and then in Italy, France and Austrian Empire., Ex-librises were designed by the distinguished artists, such as A. Duerer, H. Holbein jn., L. Cranach jn., F. Boucher, P. Gavarini, E. Manet and many other graphic artists. By the end of XIX cent. there were founded the societies of ex-librists, in London in 1891, in Berlin in 1891, and Paris in 1893. In that period there also started collection activities, publishing of the magazines and organizing of the international exhibitions.

Ex-librises in Croatia
The first, so far known Croatian ex-libris appeared in Dalmatia. It is the ex-libris made by Djuro Djurkovic in XV cent. The highest quality ex-libris is the one possessed by Jakov Banicevic, born at Korcula   (1466-1532). This ex-libris was designed by the very Albrecht Duerer for these diplomat who served the emperor Maximillian, in 1520. Besides, siginificant ex-librises from XVII cent. are those possessed by the family Zrinski, father Nikola and son Adam, one designed in 1646 and the other in 1652. These ex-librises were designed by Elias Wideman from Augsburg. In XVII cent. the heraldic ex-librises or the ones with allegories were possessed by the Croatian nobility and squires, patricians and citizens (Skrlec, Jelacic, Kusevic, Labaš).

Besides these, there were also the ex-librises of the priesthood (priest Adam Baricevic from 1780 - however, this ex-libris has no artistic elements). From XVI cent. onwards the ex-librises were desigend by Martin Kolunic-Rotta, Medulic-Schiavone and Pavao Ritter-Vitezovic.